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e x c e p t i o n a l l e a r n e r s aprendedores excepcionales

Mental retardation

Bilingual and bicultural learners
Attention Deficit Disorder
Emotional disorders
Communication disorders
Physical impairments
Aprendedores bilingües y biculturales
El Déficit de Atención
Desórdenes emocionales
Desórdenes comunicativos
Debilitaciones físicas
Although students with mental retardation are more likely to be segregated than any other group except students with multiple disabilities, research shows that students with mental retardation perform at higher levels when included in general education classrooms.  Also beneficial to students with mental retardation is a curriculum that emphasizes self-determination, life skills, and collaboration with parents from an early age (Turnbull et al., 2002).


Mental retardation is not something you have, like blue eyes, or a bad heart. Nor is it something you are, like short, or thin.  It is not a medical disorder, nor a mental disorder. Mental retardation is a particular state of functioning that begins in childhood and is characterized by limitation in both intelligence and adaptive skills. Mental retardation reflects the "fit" between the capabilities of individuals and the structure and expectations of their environment.     
-American Association on Mental Retardation  

The American Association on Mental Retardation (2003) defines mental retardation as a disability originating before the age of 18, characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. 

For more information

The American Association on Mental Retardation
(800) 424-3688

(301) 565-3842


an international organization dedicated to enhancing the lives of people with intellectual disabilities by providing opportunities for one-to-one friendships and integrated employment 
(800) 89-BUDDY

National Down Syndrome Congress 
a national non-profit organization of parents and professionals  (800) 232-NDSC
National Down Syndrome Society
a national non-profit organization devoted
to education, research and advocacy  (800) 221-4602